More Europe News

Celebrating 29 Years of the CRC

On Tuesday November 20th, the Initiative for Child Rights in the Global Compacts held an event at the Palais des

JRS Report on the Detention of Trafficked Men

IDC partner, JRS UK, has released a report based on the experience of 13 trafficked men. The report finds that

Recast Return Directive Foresees More Immigration Detention

On 12 September 2018, in his state of union speech, European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker announced a Recast of the Return Directive to

Evidence That Alternatives to Detention Can Be Effective

The first independent evaluation report on three alternatives to detention pilot projects in the European ATD Network is now out.
Read the Report and Briefing

Trust and support key to effective alternatives to detention

New guidance from the Council of Europe could help European governments refocus on the kind of alternatives that really work

Country Reports on Child – Sensitive Migration

Kids Empowerment, a Paris-based NGO and IDC member, aims to empower children and youth by helping them assert their rights,

OHCHR Report: “In Search of Dignity: report on the human rights of migrants at Europe’s borders”

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) has published a new report: In Search of

A unique alternative to detention model in Barcelona

The city of Barcelona has created a local resident status to provide rights and reduce the risk of detention for undocumented migrants.

Women for Refugee Women Report: We are Still Here

IDC Member organisation, Women for Refugee Women have released a new report: ‘We are Still Here: The continued detention of

Building evidence for alternatives to detention in Poland

Katarzyna Słubik works for IDC Member Stowarzyszenie Interwencji Prawnej ( SIP – the Association for Legal Intervention) based in Warsaw, Poland.

Ending Child Detention Highlighted at EU Child Rights Forum

The European Forum on the rights of the child is an annual conference organised by the European Commission. It gathers [...]

The revised Return Handbook: what’s new on immigration detention?

In September, the European Commission published a revised Return Handbook as part of its of the 2015 the European Agenda

Council of Europe Conference on Ending Child Detention

An international conference “Immigration Detention of Children: Coming To A Close?” took place in Prague at the Žofin Palace on [...]

Future Focus Needed

As the Africa-Europe 'mini-summit' on migration drew to a conclusion in Paris this month, it became clear that while all [...]

New Report: Immigration Detention in Spain

IDC Member, El Servicio Jesuita a Migrantes-España (SJM-E) has now published a short summary in English of their 2016 report on the [...]

Conference on Immigration Detention in Macedonia

Since the closing of the Macedonian border to Greece in early 2016, the use of immigration detention has been an increasing concern

Historic Norway Ruling: Detention of Children is Inhumane

A Court of Appeal in Norway has found twenty days’ detention of four children during deportation proceedings to be in [...]

EU Fundamental Rights Agency Launches Report on Immigration Detention of Children

A new report on the “European legal and policy framework on immigration detention of children” has been launched by the [...]

Building trust, avoiding detention: unpacking case management as an alternative

Participants at the peer exchange workshop in Sofia, June, 2017   What do we mean by case management as an [...]

NGOs Raise Concerns Over COE Rules For Administrative Detention Of Migrants

The important task of codifying existing international standards has been entrusted by CDCJ to a Committee of experts established under [...]

UN Experts Seek Submissions on the Human Rights of Migrant Children

This is reposted from OHCHR, please find the original post here
 
CMW-CRC Joint General Comment on the Human Rights of

Emerging Developments in Child Detention in Europe

The number of children in migration arriving in the European Union has increased over the last two years, many of [...]

Input into the Council of Europe Standards for Administrative Detention of Migrants.

Shape the Council of Europe’s minimum standards for the administrative detention of migrants by joining a hearing with external stakeholders, to be held in Strasbourg from 22-23 June.

Will More and Longer Detention Solve the ‘Migration Crisis’?

The EU may see its management of the ‘refugee crisis’ as an existential threat. But resort to mass detention will be a sign of helplessness, not strength.

New Report: Detention of Stateless People in Europe Can Be Avoided

The European Network on Statelessness (ENS) has set an agenda for change with their latest report, promoting the use of alternatives as a way to prevent detention of people who are stateless and languish, unnecessarily, in immigration detention.

Save the Date : IDC Annual Member Meeting June 16

Members at the IDC Annual Member Meeting 2016
 
Our annual member meeting will be held at the International Conference

Child Detention Monitoring Training for the Council of Europe Parliamentary Campaign

The IDC Advocacy Coordinator, Mr. Ben Lewis, presented as part of the pilot training seminar ‘Monitoring places where children are [...]

New Italian law protects unaccompanied migrant and refugee children

A new law has been passed in Italy, aiming to guarantee the rights of unaccompanied children and provide a standard [...]

IDC Member Leonardo Cavaliere Talks Italian Migrant Children Laws

IDC Member, Leonardo Cavaliere from Minori Stranieri Non Accompagnati, has provided a detailed analysis of what the new laws will [...]

Solutions for reducing detention

A new network of NGOs piloting alternatives in Europe A new network of European NGOs aims to reduce immigration detention [...]

Piloting Alternatives to Immigration Detention in Cyprus

This article has been written by Josefina Mavrou, Researcher, Future Worlds Center

 
The use of detention is the

Resources from IDC Member Analyse Detention in Italy

The Italian government recently announced a significant expansion of the use of immigration detention, with plans to establish Identification and Expulsion

Hungary to detain asylum seekers – including children

The Hungarian parliament has approved a law that allows all asylum seekers to be detained, including children between the ages

Misguided and harmful: new European Commission policy on returns

The European Commission should focus on alternatives, not more immigration detention.
 
The IDC is deeply concerned that a new

New European Union returns policies put children at risk

The International Detention Coalition joined many UN agencies and international human rights organisations expressing concern over the European Union returns

Unlocking Immigration Detention Reflection

This blog piece by Jem Stevens, IDC Europe Regional Coordinator, was first published in December 2016 on the #Unlocked16

UNHCR Issue Brief clarifies position on ending child immigration detention

The IDC welcomes this update on UNHCR’s position on the detention of children in the context of immigration. As a

How to Get Involved In the UN Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty

Around the world, an unknown number of children are deprived of their liberty every year. Such detention often occurs in [...]

“It’s Time to Invest in Alternatives to Detention” – Council of Europe Human Rights Commissioner

In his latest Human Rights Comment, Nils Muižnieks has highlighted the urgent need for States to invest in alternatives to [...]

New Working Paper Highlights Excessive use of Detention in Common European Asylum System (CEAS) Reforms

IDC Member, JRS Europe, has released a working paper analysing the reform proposals for the Common European Asylum System (CEAS), [...]

Italy: Plans to Expand Immigration Detention

The International Detention Coalition (IDC) joins Italian civil society organisations in expressing concern about the Italian government’s plans to expand [...]

Advocating for Alternatives: Reflecting on IDC Membership

Tine Vermeiran coordinates the Platform for Minors in Exile, based in Brussels, Belgium. The Platform for Minors in Exile is

Detained and nowhere to go: stateless persons at risk of arbitrary detention in the UK

On 10 November, The European Network on Statelessness published new research into the detention of stateless people in Britain which

The End of Systematic Detention of Asylum Seekers in Malta?

This article was authored by Claire Delom, the Legal Officer at the IDC Member the aditus foundation based in Malta. 
 

UNICEF: Urgent Call to End Child Detention

As Europe struggles to agree upon fair and sustainable ways to process the unprecedented movement of asylum seekers and migrants

Arresting the mass detention of migrants: ‘Build trust, not walls’

The pragmatic development of alternatives to detention with civil society at the fore can help to arrest the slide into

Who gets detained in Bulgaria?

In September 2016, Center for Legal Aid – Voice in Bulgaria (CLA) published the final report from the project “Who

HEAR the voices of those detained in Bulgaria

 
The use and impact of immigration detention in Bulgaria has come under the spotlight via the HEAR project, which has

New report: vulnerable people in Dutch immigration detention

This piece was written by Gerrianne Smits at the Doctors of the Netherlands, one of the members of the IDC, and one [...]

Use of torture against migrants and refugees in Hungary and Macedonia

 
The United Nations Subcommittee on the Prevention of Torture (SPT) will visit Hungary and Macedonia in 2017 to

Belgium Reprimanded by Court Over Child Detention

The State Council has critiqued the Belgian Government for its use of immigration detention for children.
 
Belgium law,

Exploring Alternatives to Immigration Detention in Greece

The IDC Director, Mr. Grant Mitchell and IDC Europe Regional Coordinator, Ms. Eiri Ohtani,  met with representatives of the

Alternatives to the Detention of Children in Switzerland

 

A seminar on alternatives to the immigration detention of children took place on 16 June in the Swiss

IDC ATD Workshop for Regional Advisors – June 2016 London, UK

 
On 19 and 20 June 2016, the IDC ran its first ever alternatives to detention workshop designed specifically

2016 IDC Annual Member Meeting

IDC members from around the world attended our 2016 Annual Member Meeting this year, held on June 14th in Geneva. The

Alternatives to Detention, Political Will & Trade Impacts: UN Expert on Migrants

The UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, Mr. François Crépeau has highlighted the cross cutting issue of

Increasing Transparency of Bulgarian Detention: New Website

How easy or difficult is it to find out information about immigration detention in Bulgaria?  One of members, The Centre [...]

Welcome to New Members of Our Advisory Committee

We are proud to welcome nine new members to the IDC’s International Advisory Committee (IAC) across the Africa, the Middle East,

Concerns New EU-Turkey Deal will see Increased Use of Immigration Detention

This month has seen a troubling shift in the EU as more and more people seek safety in Europe.
Last

IDC Welcomes New Council of Europe Special Advisor on Migration and Refugees

On 31 March 2016 IDC Advocacy Coordinator, Ben Lewis, attended a meeting hosted by the office of the United Nations

“From Torture to Detention”: Developing Alternatives and Effective Support

IDC was in Budapest, Hungary, in late January, to attend the closing workshop of the STRENGTH project and to join

Tips, Examples & Positive Practice: NGO Immigration Detention Monitoring

The latest IDC publication captures the experiences of Non Government Organisations monitoring of immigration detention, and compiles learnings into this handy [...]

Europe November News Roundup

This is a compilation of the tweets by the Europe Regional Coordinator of the International Detention Coalition. For live updates, follow

Greece and Turkey – Countries at Immigration Detention Crossroads

In November 2015, IDC Europe visited Greece and Turkey to disseminate the findings of our revised research, will operate

New Toolkit Launched on Statelessness and Detention in Europe

People who are stateless are often detained for months and even years, without any real prospect of freedom, or

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Roundtable on Alternatives to Detention of children

The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) held a Roundtable on alternatives to immigration detention of children as

Amnesty International gives a voice to refugees on the Western Balkan Route

As the flow of refugees and migrants continues into Europe, the report by Amnesty International (published in July 2015) provides

EU Action Plan on Return and the ‘Return Handbook’ – opportunity for changing detention practice or risk of detention overuse?

In recent months, European Union Member States have come under increasing pressure to address a rapid increase in the number

Europe September-October News Roundup

This is a compilation of the tweets by the Europe Regional Coordinator of the International Detention Coalition. For live updates, follow

Council of Europe’s anti-torture Committee reports on Immigration Detention in Finland

On 20th August 2015, The Council of Europe’s Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or

Numbers Game Proves Detention “Ineffective”

The Czech Republic will no longer detain Syrian refugees trying to reach Germany, police have said, making it the latest

Europe August News Roundup

Regional: UN Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants warns that increased detention, xenophobia, and violence won’t solve Europe’s‪ refugee crisis.
Mr.

European rights expert: “Europe can do more to protect refugees”

From Council of Europe

OpenDemocracy, Berlingske, Index and others, 02/09/2015
For many years European countries have been

Regional Advisor Positions Now Open in Europe

The IDC is now seeking for nominations for Regional Advisors from Northern and Southern Europe.
Regional Advisors are an important part

“Let’s not pretend Europe’s response is working” – UN rights expert warns

From OHCHR
GENEVA (25 August 2015) – The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, François Crépeau,

Europe July News Roundup

Regional: Tragedies continue as Europe fails to offer safe route for refugees. Up to 19 people are feared to have drowned

Vulnerability in Immigration Detention in Europe: Two Reports by IDC Members

The immigration detention of vulnerable individuals is frequently raised as one of the key concerns by our member organisations who

Germany: Draft Law Permits Extensive Detention

A proposed law could increase Germany’s power to detain asylum seekers.
At the end of June 2015, The German House of

Nils Muižnieks – You’re better than this, Europe

Nils Muižnieks, the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, published an article with the title “You’re better than this, Europe” in

Investing in Europe: New Combined Fund with Focus on Alternatives

According to the European Commission’s website, Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund (AMIF) has four specific objectives, Asylum, Legal migration and

UK Court of Appeal Ends Fast Tracking of Asylum Appeals

[26 June 2014] In the United Kingdom the Court of Appeal has ended the Detained Fast Track appeals process for

For a Europe Without the Detention of Migrant Children

IDC moderated the first Roundtable that the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe held last week as part of their Campaign to End Immigration Detention of Children.The Roundtable topic was “for a Europe without the detention of migrant children” and featured speakers from UNHCR, OHCHR and the Alternate Minister for Migration Policy of Greece.

Europe June News Roundup

This is a compilation of the tweets by the Europe Regional Coordinator of the International Detention Coalition. For live updates,

New Report: Children Deprived of ‪‎Liberty‬ in Central & Eastern Europe

This report includes details on the child detention situation in Hungary, Poland,Romania and Bulgaria.

It was produced by the Bulgarian Helsinki

Europe April/ May Roundup

This is a compilation of the tweets by the Europe Regional Coordinator of the International Detention Coalition. For live updates,

End Isolation Cells: Dutch NGOs

New research from the Netherlands questions the use of isolation in immigration detention, entitled ‘If someone is suffering, does he have

The EU Returns Directive – a critical overview of the gap between law and practice

A new paper from PICUM (the Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants), considers the implementation of the EU Returns

IDC Open Letter to Bulgarian MPs on Draft Amendments to Law on Asylum and Refugees

The Bulgarian Parliament’s initiative to amend the Law on Asylum and Refugees (LAR) is to be welcomed as a crucial

Europe March Roundup

This is a compilation of the tweets by the Europe Regional Coordinator of the International Detention Coalition. For live updates,

Council of Europe Campaign to End Child Detention

The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe launched the Campaign to End Immigration Detention of Children, taking a significant [...]

NGOs share experiences in monitoring immigration detention

At the end of March 2015, the IDC and Flemish Refugee Action (Vluchtelingenwerk Vlaanderen) co-organised a two-day workshop in Brussels,

UNHCR Preparing 2nd Global Roundtable on Alternatives to Detention

GENEVA (8 April 2015) – The Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is busy preparing the

February News Roundup

This is a compilation of the tweets by the Europe Regional Coordinator of the International Detention Coalition. For live updates,

Greece releases migrants in a move away from immigration detention

According to media reports, the Greek government started releasing people from immigration detention centres in February, as part of a

UK Detention Inquiry Report Calls For “Change in Culture”

The International Detention Coalition (IDC) welcomes the report of the first ever parliamentary inquiry into immigration detention in the UK,

January News Roundup

This is a compilation of the tweets by the Europe Regional Coordinator of the International Detention Coalition. For live updates,

Registration Opening Soon for UNHCR Annual Consultations with NGOs

GENEVA (17 February) – Every year over 300 representatives from around the world attend UNHCR’s Annual Consultations with NGOs in

International Conference: “None of Europe’s Children Should be Stateless” 

BUDAPEST (10 February) – The European Network on Statelessness (ENS), a network of NGO’s, academics and individual experts who are

MADE Real project final conference on ATD in Europe

A conference held in Brussels on 6 February presented the findings of a major research project into alternatives to detention

UN Expert visits Brussels and calls on states to “bank on migrants”

BRUSELS (2-5 February) – The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, Mr. François Crépeau, visited Brussels as

IDC presents on ATD to decision-makers in the UK and the Netherlands

The IDC Director, Grant Mitchell, gave presentations on alternatives to immigration detention to the UK Parliamentary Inquiry on the use of [...]

UK Court of appeal finds second aspect of Detained Fast Track unlawful

LONDON (16 December 2014) – The Court of Appeal has today ruled that a second element of the Home Office’s

Europe News Roundup

This is a compilation of the tweets by the Europe Regional Coordinator of the International Detention Coalition. For live updates, [...]

UN expert to Malta – “stop the mandatory detention of irregular migrants and asylum seekers”

VALETTA (10 December 2014) – On International Human Rights Day, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights of

Organisations ask new EU Commissioner for Migration and Home Affairs to ensure the rights of all migrant children

BRUSSELS (8 December 2014) – Welcoming Dimitris Avramopoulos in his position as new EU Commissioner for Migration and Home Affairs,

New European study reports on the use of detention across the EU

BRUSSELS (December 6, 2014) – A new synthesis report published by the European Migration Network (EMN) entitled, The use of

UN expert to Italy – “A humanitarian crisis must have a global humanitarian response”

ROME (5 December 2014) – Following his recent visit to Italy, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights

New report on immigration detention in France in 2013

Five organisations authorised to enter immigration detention centres in France (Assfam, Forum Réfugiés, France Terre d’Asile, La Cimade and Ordre

CoE HR Commissioner names child immigration detention top challenge for Europe

STRASBOURG (20 November 2014) – Child immigration detention is a top challenge for child rights in Europe, said the

Call for a moratorium on UK detention expansion – Stop Campsfield Expansion

As the UK Home Office plans to more than double the capacity of Campsfield House Immigration Removal Centre in

Belgium: concerns about plans to detain children and family members

The International Detention Coalition is deeply concerned by developments in Belgium relating to the detention of families with minor children.
In September

Malta: there are alternatives to the immigration detention of children

There are alternatives to detention which would allow Malta to stop detaining unaccompanied migrant and refugee children in line with

UN expert to Europe – “migrants are human beings”

GENEVA (30 October 2014) – The United Nations Special Rapporteur on the human rights of migrants, Mr. François Crépeau, recently

CoE Human Rights Commissioner: “Migrant’s and children’s rights need better protection in the Netherlands”

STRASBOURG (14 October 2014) – The Human Rights Commissioner for the Council of Europe, Mr. Nils Muižnieks, has published a report following

Still Stateless, Still Suffering – support the ENS campaign to protect stateless persons

BRUSSELS (7 October 2014) – The European Network on Statelessness (ENS) has launched a report Still Stateless, Still Suffering which contains 20 individual

CRC 25th Anniversary

GENEVA (6 October 2014) – This year marks the 25th anniversary of the adoption of the UN Convention on the Rights

New campaign ‘unlocks detention’ in the UK

You are cordially invited to the tour of the UK detention estate – on Twitter!
‘Unlocking Detention‘ is an

Detention News Roundup September – Europe

Updated International Commission of Jurists guide examines international immigration detention legal framework.
European Database of Asylum Law analyses judgment that asylum-seekers are not systematically detained

Parliamentary Assembly adopts landmark resolution calling for an end to child immigration detention

the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) debated and adopted by a vote of 46 – 2 a landmark resolution calling on member states to prohibit the immigration detention of children.

“Still behind bars”: report on monitoring of Polish immigration detention centres published.

There have been positive improvements in the regime in immigration detention centres in Poland over the past two years, a

Seeking to Implement Alternatives: IDC submission to UK parliamentary inquiry

In a submission to the UK Parliamentary Inquiry into the use of immigration detention, the IDC suggests that there are

CoE: Parliamentary Assembly to vote on ending child immigration detention in Europe

STRASBOURG (22 September 2014) – On Friday 3 October, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) will debate

Key ways forward for alternatives to detention in Europe – IDC workshop report

The report of the IDC’s second Europe Regional Workshop (Brussels, 27 & 28 March 2014) is now available here.
Key ways forward for ATD

Europe News Roundup: July / August

ECRE releases a new report, Right to Justice: Quality Legal Assistance for Unaccompanied Children 
The Guardian opens up debate about

Detención de niños, niñas y adolescentes: Una nueva alianza internacional

GINEBRA (2 Septiembre 2014) –
In English
Se crea el Grupo de Trabajo Interinstitucional para la Erradicación de la Detención de Niños, Niñas y

Child detention: a new international alliance

GENEVA (2 September 2014) –
En Español
The impact of immigration detention on refugee, asylum seeker and migrant children

EU Court of Justice: migrants must not be detained in prisons

LUXEMBOURG (30 August 2014) – In an historic decision, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has ruled

Immigration detention under the spotlight in the UK

This summer saw two significant developments in relation to immigration detention in the UK.

UK High Court finds detained fast track, as it operates, unlawful

On 9 July 2014, the UK High Court handed down a significant judgment finding the detained fast track procedure for asylum seekers unlawful as it currently operates, in a case brought by IDC member Detention Action. This is the first time that a UK court has found that the detained fast track has crossed over into unlawfulness.

Immigration detention overused in Spain

Nearly 3,000 people from 53 different countries were detained in immigration detention centres (Centro de Internamientode Extranjeros or CIEs) in

This Geneva is not my Geneva!

A new campaign is calling on people to say no to the construction of a new detention centres for migrants

What ‘Europe’ can mean…

Contribution by Dr. Dominik Matuschek SJ, Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) Germany
The European Union can no doubt be called a

Europe Act Now campaign focuses on detention

There’s only a couple of weeks left in the Europe Act Now Campaign, which urges the European Parliament to take action to assist the significant number of refugees arriving to the region from Syria.

Everyone has the right to a nationality

Around 600,000 stateless persons live in Europe today, including many migrants stuck in perpetual limbo.

The European Statelessness Network has organised a petition urging the European Parliament to act now.

Detention Action is recruiting an Independent Evaluator for its alternative to detention project

IDC member Detention Action is tendering for an independent evaluator for its new Community Support Project in the UK, an

Statistics on detention in Malta: UNHCR and EPIO #know the facts booklet

A booklet published by UNHCR and the European Parliament Information Office, #knowthefacts, aims to provide MEPs with accurate information and

When can states detain migrants in prisons? EU Advocate General publishes opinion.

The Advocate General of the Court of Justice of the European Union has issued an opinion relating to when migrants

Greek government extends detention for migrants awaiting removal beyond 18 months allowed under EU law

The International Detention Coalition (IDC) joins UNHCR and civil society in expressing concern about the Greek government’s decision to prolong

Conference: “Challenges of the Common European Asylum System”

The European Union has made considerable progress in finalising the Common European Asylum System in the past few years, in order to guarantee high quality reception systems of asylum seekers in its member states.

Expert Meeting on Detention in the framework of the Eastern Partnership Panel on Migration and Asylum

The IDC presented alongside its members: Pieter Stockmans of Flemish Refugee Action, who shared the Belgian experience of alternatives to detention in Belgium; and Soorej Jose of Uppsala University, who presented on the negative effects of immigration detention.

Transit or destination? It’s not always so simple

Often discussions around stopping irregular migration and on the use of detention to this end refer to transit and destination countries.

Maltese Prime Minister commits to ending child detention

The International Detention Coalition joins civil society groups and UNHCR in welcoming a commitment of the Prime Minister of Malta to end the detention of children in the country.

Impact of EU returns policy on detention: EC communication on the Return Directive.

On 28 March 2014, the European Commission published a communication which reports on “changes in return policy over recent years,

CPT calls on UK government to reconsider policy of indefinite immigration detention

The European Committee on the Prevention of Torture (CPT) has published a report recommending that the UK reconsider its policy of indefinite immigration detention.

A window of opportunity to reduce unnecessary immigration detention in the EU

At the end of March, the IDC gathered over 50 civil society practitioners from 20 countries in Brussels, Belgium,

The state of Bavaria in Germany announces it will stop holding immigration detainees in prisons

On 18 November 2013, the Justice Minister of the state of Bavaria in Germany announced that it will stop detaining

Immigration detainee close to death must remain in custody in the UK

In the UK, the government has refused to release a man from immigration detention, who is close to death having

Use of arbitrary detention as part of systematic push-backs from Greek sea and land borders – PRO ASYL report

A report published by the NGO PRO ASYL this month points to the use of arbitrary detention as part of

Bulgarian bill introduces systematic detention of Asylum seekers

In Bulgaria, a bill adopted by the Government on 13 November 2013 introduces the systematic detention of asylum seekers and

EU returns directive ruling from the German High Court

A German court ruled this month that the practice of detaining refugees and asylum seekers together with criminal offenders and

ECRE AGM 2013

The IDC was pleased to be able to attend the ECRE annual general conference this year, where the plight of

Defining the EU’s role in protecting the rights of undocumented migrant children

A public hearing considering the role of the European Union institutions in ensuring the rights of undocumented migrant children and their

IDC urges EU nations to stop detaining children

European Parliament Public Hearing (photo: PICUM)
A public hearing considering the role of the European Union institutions in ensuring the

ECRE Annual General Conference 2013

The IDC was pleased to be able to attend the ECRE annual general conference this year, where the plight of

EU returns directive ruling from the German High Court

A German court ruled this month that the practice of detaining refugees and asylum seekers together with criminal offenders and

Prolonged detention in Hungary

In its first visit to Hungary, the UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention raised concerns that irregular migrants continue to

Malta’s mandatory detention policy

Malta’s policy of mandatory detention of irregular migrants continued to be heavily criticised, with UNHCR stating that it is unlawful

European Union migration policy firmly under the spotlight

Two boat tragedies in the Mediterranean put the European Union’s migration policies firmly under the spotlight again this month. Hundreds

Europe Regional News August 2013

Summer in Europe this year has brought with it ongoing concerns about the ill-treatment of asylum seekers & irregular migrants

IDC visit Amnesty International Finland

Amnesty International Finland strengthened their national campaign to end child detention with a visit from IDC and the Global Campaign to End

Amnesty International Netherlands hold symposium on Alternatives to Detention

Amnesty International Netherlands held a symposium on Alternatives to Detention, with over 100 attendees of civil society, listening to government representatives from

JRS Europe Policy Paper – Croatia to join EU

From Back Door to Front Door: Forced migration routes through Macedonia to Croatia
On 1st July 2013, Croatia will join

JRS Europe: new research

Protection Interrupted: The Dublin Regulation’s impact on asylum seekers protection
From the perspective of the EU and the member states,

European Parliament votes on adoption of ‘Asylum Package’

Joint statement from ECRE, JRS, Amnesty International, Save the Children
After five years of negotiations, the European Parliament has voted

Dutch government to soften immigration detention system

The Dutch government has stated that they will soften their immigration detention system, days after a National Symposium on Alternatives to Detention

Amnesty International Netherlands

Amnesty International Netherlands held a symposium on Alternatives to Detention, with over 100 attendees of civil society, listening to government representatives from

JRS Europe Policy Paper

JRS Europe Policy Paper: From Back Door to Front Door: Forced migration routes through Macedonia to Croatia.
On 1st July 2013,

JRS Europe New Research

JRS Europe new research: Protection Interupted: The Dublin Regulation’s impact on asylum seekers protection.
From the perspective of the EU and

Joint statement from ECRE, JRS, Amnesty International and Save the Children

Joint statement from ECRE, JRS, Amnesty International, Save the Children After five years of negotiations, the European Parliament has voted on

Dutch National Symposium on Alternatives to Detention

The Dutch government has stated that they will soften their immigration detention system, days after a National Symposium on Alternatives to Detention

Amnesty International Finnish Section

Amnesty International’s Finnish Section launch their new campaign to end child immigration detention.
Link to campaign. 

Call for EU Migration Policy to Incorporate Human Rights Approach

In Europe, the launch of the thematic report by Mr François Crépeau, UN Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of

Amnesty International: Greece plans sweep of migrants & asylum seekers

Amnesty International has labelled plans to round up and detain irregular immigrants and asylum seekers in Greece as “deeply alarming“.

Detention Action: Alternatives to Detention

Article from Detention Action, written by their Director, Jerome Phelps “Is there an alternative to locking up migrants in the

UNHCR welcomes Turkey’s new law on asylum

A summary of what was said by UNHCR spokesperson Melissa Fleming.
Read the article here: UNHCR welcomes Turkey’s new law on

IDC welcomes new asylum legislation in Turkey, urges further exploration of alternatives to detention

The IDC joins with UNHCR and others in welcoming Turkey’s new legislation, the Law on Foreigners and International Protection, which

VIDEO: Detention Action UK Clip “Dear Jane”

Please view the film “Dear Jane” by Detention Action UK, view here at Vimeo.
Detention Action believes that the treatment

Asylum Network: Successful immigration detention seminar held on 1st February 2013 (Asylum Network)

A seminar comprising around 60 academics, NGO practitioners and ex-detainees was held in London on February 1, 2013, beginning a

Europe Regional Detention News: The IDC joins UNHCR in voicing concern over proposed amendment to Estonian asylum law, which would allow for arbitrary detention of all asylum seekers in Estonia

UNHCR has recently published a set of recommendations relating to proposed amendments to Estonian national asylum legislation.
The proposal

Detention practices in Greece continue to raise concerns with UN and civil society

Conditions in purpose-built immigration detention facilities as well as in places of detention (including police cells, border guard stations, other

Regional Europe: Moving forward on asylum in the EU: UNHCR’s Recommendations to Ireland for its EU Presidency January – June 2013

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) has released a new report titled ‘Moving forward on asylum in the

Human Rights Watch: New report: Turned Away- Summary Returns of Unaccompanied Migrant Children and Adult Asylum Seekers from Italy to Greece

Human Rights Watch has released a new report titled Turned Away – Summary Returns of Unaccompanied Migrant Children and Adult

Amnesty International: Press Release: Asylum seekers and migrants in Greece hounded by police operations and right-wing extremists

Amnesty International has released a briefing titled Greece: The end of the road for refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants, outlining the obstacles

Europe Regional News 2013

Immigration detention concerns continue to be raised throughout Europe at the start of 2013 with Greece remaining a country

VIDEO: In the Name of the Italian People

In the Name of the Italian People is a short documentary exploring the CIE (Centre for Identification & Expulsion) of

Europe: First ever IDC workshop on immigration detention in EU

Late last month, representatives from 15 EU countries came together in Athens, Greece, to take part in the first IDC

First EU workshop on immigration detention

Brussels, Athens, 26 November 2012 – With immigration detention a growing issue across Europe, NGOs from 15 EU countries gathered

Refugee Council UK: New Report – Not a Minor Offence

This report discusses the situation of children detained as part of the asylum process because a decision has been made

Launch of the European Network on Statelessness (ENS)

Launch of the European Network on Statelessness (ENS): A joint initiative coordinated and hosted by Asylum Aid.
Visit the new website.

Europe: Amnesty International launches new campaign in Europe

When You Don’t Exist is Amnesty International’s recently launched campaign for the human rights of migrants, refugees and asylum-seekers in

Disturbing reports of detainee ill-treatment in Romanian detention centre

“We need help, we are more than fifty detainees in the Arad detention centre, Romania. We are asylum seekers and

New JRS report highlights more humane non-custodial alternatives in Europe

A new report by IDC member Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) Europe has concluded that detaining migrants is unnecessary because

First regional Alternatives to Detention Roundtable in Brussels, November 2011

The IDC this week presented to governments and civil society from across Western Europe and Malta, as well as to the Council of Europe at the first regional Alternatives to Detention Roundtable organized by UNHCR in Brussels.

Human Rights Watch releases new report on appalling detention centres in Greece

Human Rights Watch has recently published a report  which not only highlights appalling conditions in a number of Greece’s

UK deaths in immigration detention, concerns voiced over detention conditions

It has been reported in various media outlets that there have been a number of deaths in immigration detention centres

Detention concerns in Malta

There are currently real concerns about detention conditions in Malta’s immigration detention facilities after riots took place at the

British High Court Rules UKBA Subjected Man to Inhuman, Degrading Treatment in Detention

 
In a landmark decision in early August 2011, the British High Court has ruled that the Secretary of

More arrivals land in Europe, European response viewed by many as too harsh

Hundreds, if not thousands of men, women and children are still fleeing the upheavals and atrocities currently being endured

Children pave the way for alternatives to detention in Holland

Until recently unaccompanied minors in the Netherlands were placed in detention if they entered the territory without documentation. Three hundred

UNHCR & Council of Europe: “Protecting Refugees” Information Pack

Click here to view the report (2011)

Bail for Immigration Detainees UK: Response of BID and The Children’s Society to UKBA plans for pilots to remove pilots with limited notice

Bail for Immigration Detainees presents a selection of responses that have been submitted to parliamentary, judicial, and agency consultations.

The Netherlands: Find alternatives for detention centres

“Amnesty International says that the Dutch immigration authorities resort to detention too easily and keep illegal aliens incarcerated for far

Corridors of Exile: A worldwide web of camps

Click here to read the article (November 2010)

Greece: Preliminary findings from Special Rapporteur on Torture, October 2010

Please click here to download preliminary findings

EU: Discussion paper: Alternatives for detention for families with minor children – The Belgian approach

Please click here to download discussion paper in full

Equal Rights Trust UN Side Meeting Event on Statelessness 2010

Please click here to download the event flyer containing all relevant information        

Jesuit Refugee Service: Europe: “Becoming Vulnerable in Detention”

The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) has released its Civil Society Report on the Detention of Vulnerable Asylum Seekers and Irregular

HRW: Report: Iraqi Asylum Seekers Denied Protection

Greece systematically rounds up and detains Iraqi asylum seekers and other migrants in dirty, overcrowded conditions and forcibly and secretly

Belgium: Le Soir: “Des mineurs detenus malgre les promesses” (French only)

The big news of 29 September 2009 in Belgium: See article below (French only)
Bernard De Vos (Childrens Rights Commissioner of

Turkey: Amnesty International Urgent Action: September 2009

Denied protection in Turkey – Refugees unlawfully detained
See Amnesty International’s website, for further information as to how to act

UK: British Refugee Council: Policy Update Conference 2010

The Refugee Council Conference 2010 will look at how asylum policy impacts on the refugee experience in the UK. Delegates

Germany: JRS Dispatch No.261: Berlin Urgently Needs to Monitor Deportations

Following the deportation of 100 people from Berlin to Vietnam, JRS Director, Martin Stark SJ, urged the state government to

Europe: JRS Update: Belgium: Detention devastates lives Turkey: HCA co-authored report: Unsafe Haven: The Security Challenges Facing LGBT Asylum Seekers & Refugees in Turkey

“Unsafe Haven: The Security Challenges Facing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender, Asylum Seekers and Refugees in Turkey” is a joint publication of Helsinki Citizens’

Turkey: HCA & ORAM report: Unsafe Haven

Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) individuals are among the most vulnerable asylum seekers and refugees in Turkey today. Having

Platform for International Cooperation on Undocumented Migrants: Undocumented Children in Europe

Click here to view the report (2009) (English) and click here to view other PICUM reports

JRS Europe: Interview: ‘Europe Today’ (BBC World Service)

Following a report by the children’s commissioner for England, Sir Al Aynsley-Green, JRS Europe Policy and Advocacy Officer Philip Amaral

Europe: UN Refugee Agency issues educational toolkit

The UN refugee agency and its partner, the International Organization for Migration, on Thursday launched an innovative educational toolkit designed

ECRE: Manifesto: European Elections 2009

In light of the upcoming European elections, ECRE has put forward a Manifesto with key recommendations to the

The Netherlands: Commissioner for Human Rights Report

“The policies towards migrants and asylum-seekers require further review”. This was emphasised by Thomas Hammarberg, the Council of Europe Commissioner

UK: Sir Al Aynsley-Green calls for ‘community-based alternatives’

Children who have been refused asylum should not be held in detention centre before being deported, the children’s commissioner for England

UK: Child asylum rules ‘flouted’

Government guidelines on the treatment of child asylum seekers are being “routinely flouted” by UK Border Agency staff, according to

UK: Illegal immigrant centre opened

A removal centre for illegal immigrants and foreign criminals has been opened in West Sussex. Brook House, near Gatwick airport,

UK: In detention: Schools in immigration removal centres

They came early one January morning. It was bitterly cold. The noise woke her: loud voices, fists pounding on the

UK: Asylum seeker children ‘removed in caged vans’

The Children’s Commissioner for England has expressed concern over claims that children of asylum seekers, some as young as eight

UK: Row on asylum children detention

The UK government’s treatment of the children of asylum seekers in detention is “abusive” and “dehumanising”, it has been claimed.

UK: The mental distress of detained asylum seekers

People denied asylum in the UK but unable to return to their country of origin are being detained in immigration

UK: £32m asylum centre ‘will wreck our countryside’

Europe’s biggest detention centre for illegal immigrants is to be built in the heart of the English countryside, the Home

UK: Anglo-French detention centre to thwart would-be illegal immigrants

A joint Anglo-French detention centre is being planned for Calais to hold hundreds of migrants gathering near the Channel port

UK: Protesters glue themselves to gate to try to prevent deportation of Kurds

Anti-deportation protesters superglued themselves to the front gate of Tinsley House detention centre at Gatwick this morning to prevent failed

France: The Calais ‘Guantanamo’

The British and French governments are discussing the creation of a new immigrant holding centre within the Calais docks which

Malta: Gozo Bishop attacks detention policy

 The Bishop of Gozo, Mgr Mario Grech, has sharply criticised the detention policy for migrants whose only crime is escaping

Malta: Barrot pledges aid to improve detention conditions

 European Commission Vice-President Jacques Barrot called on Home Affairs Minister Carm Mifsud Bonnici to improve conditions for immigrants, pledging more

Italy: Lampedusa is gateway to Europe for Africa’s migrants

The desperation of poor Africans to reach Europe was underlined when a boat carrying more than 250 illegal immigrants capsized

Italy: Commissioner for Human Rights- Report on Italy

Council of Europe’s Human Rights Commissioner Thomas Hammarberg and his delegation visited Italy from 13 to 15 January 2009, as

UK: Students Against Human Trafficking blog

SAHT is an initiative from students of the University of Sussex, UK. It aims at raising

Bail for Immigration Detainees (BIDUK): Briefing papers

Bail for Immigration Detainees (BIDUK) is an independent charity that exists to challenge immigration detention in the UK. We work with

Northern Ireland: Human Rights Commission Report: Our Hidden Borders, The UK Border Agency’s Powers of Detention

Click here to download the report (April 2009) in full

JRS Europe: Research: “Detention of Vulnerable Asylum Seekers”

On 27 June, JRS Europe announced its plans to launch a large scale research project, the “Detention of Vulnerable Asylum

UK: Institute for Public Policy Research website

For more than a decade ippr has been leading the way in the UK, in promoting a rational, balanced and fair debate

France: French migrant camp re-examined

France’s immigration minister is to visit Calais as concerns grow that calls for asylum seeker facilities will attract more migrants

Malta: 300 illegal migrants land on island

More than 300 North Africans have landed on the Mediterranean island of Malta, the first time in years that such

Malta: UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention concludes visit

The United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention concluded on 23 January a five-day mission to the Republic of Malta

Malta: UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention to visit

The United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention will visit the Republic of Malta from 19 to 23 January 2009

Romania: Refugees evacuated from desert camp to safe haven

It’s bitterly cold in the western Romanian city of Timisoara, but this is a minor irritant for one happy group

Italy: Italy passes emergency rape law

Italy’s government has rushed through a decree to crack down on sexual violence and illegal immigration after a spate of

Italy: UNHCR worried about conditions for boat people on Italian island

The office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees expressed mounting concern on Friday about the conditions faced by nearly

Italy: Refugees burst out of Italian camp criticised by UN

Hundreds of asylum-seekers and would-be immigrants burst out of an Italian reception centre on the island of Lampedusa on Saturday

Italy: Révolte d’immigrés au centre d’expulsion de Lampedusa (French)

L’île de Lampedusa, dans le sud de l’Italie, a été de nouveau mercredi le théâtre d’accrochages : des affrontements ont

Italy: Camps de rétention à Malte et Lampedusa: les révoltes du désespoir (French)

Le mouvement de révolte qui a éclaté le 18 février dans le centre d’internement pour étrangers surpeuplé de la

UK: Teenager held in asylum detention centre

A MOTHER is begging officials to show “humanity” and release her teenage son from a detention centre. Satnam Gurwara, aged

UK: How can we stop looked-after children going missing?

Hundreds of children who are being looked after by the state are going missing. Louise Tickle asks whether the

UK: Border Agency Response to National Audit Office report

The Chief Executive of the UK Border Agency, Lin Homer, has responded to the National Audit Office report entitled

UK: Backlog swamps asylum system

Britain’s asylum system is “struggling to cope” with a backlog of cases which doubled last year, the National Audit Office

UK: ‘Seeking asylum is not a crime’

A UK government watchdog says the backlog of asylum cases has doubled in the last year. Here, one man tells

UK: Failed asylum seekers ‘can face one in 10 chance of removal from UK’

Newly failed asylum seekers can face just a one in 10 chance of been removed from the UK, the Government’s

UK: Foreign detainee case study

Ahmed Abu Bakar Hassan arrived in Britain in October 2004 from Darfur, Sudan, but was refused asylum. After being

UK: Row on asylum children detention

The UK government’s treatment of the children of asylum seekers in detention is “abusive” and “dehumanising”, it has been claimed.

UK: Asylum detainees win record payout

In a landmark settlement, the Congolese family have been awarded £150,000, believed to be the biggest payout over the unlawful

UK: Unlawfully detained asylum family compensated

The High Court has awarded a family, including a one-year-old baby and a child of eight, £150,000 damages after the

UK: Asylum seekers ‘dumped and forgotten’ in detention centres, says report

Hundreds of failed asylum seekers and foreign ex-offenders are being held in detention centres for indefinite periods because political sensitivity

HRW: Report: Returns at Any Cost

Human Rights Watch has previously documented that unaccompanied children in Spain face detention upon arrival and may face

AI: Report: Detention centre highlights mistreatment of migrants

Men, women, children and infants are piled on mats in overcrowded cells. Food is strewn all over the kitchen and

JRS Belgium/CIRE/Flemish Refugee Action: Press Release (French)

Après des mois de crise, la situation dans le réseau d’accueil des demandeurs d’asile continue de se dégrader. Depuis quelques

UK: LDSG Report: Detained Lives- The real cost of indefinite immigration detention

Detained Lives. Working towards an end to indefinite detention and making detainees’ voices heard.

Many people are held for years

UK: Children’s welfare top priority says Immigration minister

The UK Border Agency is launching a new set of guidelines for how young people within the UK immigration

UK: Commentary: Lack of accountability is at heart of this mistreatment

A disturbing feature of Britain’s record on immigration is the treatment of failed asylum-seekers. Successive governments have overseen the establishment

Malta: Immigration clandestine Malte demande de l’aide à l’UE (French)

Click here

Malta: where hysteria is no answer to the plight of refugees

Since 2002 the Maltese government has processed 11,500 refugees and economic migrants, a figure, it says, equating to about 1.7

Greece: Infrastructure struggles to cope with mixed migration flow

 The number of irregular migrants and asylum seekers detained last year on Greece’s Lesvos Island after crossing from Turkey more

HRW: Report: Greek Government Failing Migrant Children

Some 1,000 unaccompanied migrant children who have entered Greece in 2008 without parents or caregivers struggle to survive without any

JRS Europe: Briefing paper: Dublin Regulation

The Jesuit Refugee Service-Europe has released a paper on how the implementation of the Dublin Regulation personally

UK: Bid to stop detention of children

A £150,000 pilot project aimed at ending the detention of children at Dungavel is to be launched.
Failed asylum seekers

Belgium: Concluding observations of UN Committee Against Torture

41st Session of the UN Committee against Torture, Geneva, 3-21 November 2008

CONSIDERATION OF REPORTS SUBMITTED BY STATES

UK: Detention units ‘fail on health’

Children held in UK detention centres are not getting the medical care they need, a leading medical journal warns.

France: Human Rights Commissioner concerned with human rights protection in detention

“Security concerns should not undermine a full respect for human rights norms. Some French policies on detention and immigration risk

UN Working Group on Arbitrary Detention visits Italy

The Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, a group of independent experts reporting to the UN Human Rights Council, completed today

UK: Struggle for rights of young asylum seekers ends in triumph

The 17-year struggle for the rights of asylum-seeking children is over, and campaigners are celebrating victory. The UK government has lifted

Malta: EU proposal to alleviate migration burden

Illegal immigrants who land in Malta will be able to seek asylum in other EU countries if a European Commission

EU: Immigration debate intensifies as European economy falters

 
Several thousand people took to the streets of France’s capital to protest against sweeping new immigration guidelines

Belgium: Detained children to be released

Families who are in Belgium illegally and have children will no longer have to stay in closed asylum centres

Belgium: Commitment to release children

The Belgian Minister for Migration and Asylum, Annemie Turtelboom, has said that children will no longer be detained in detention centres as

IDC Members Malta: Press Release: IDC launch

PRESS STATEMENT
FOR IMMEDIATE PUBLICATION
TO:         The Editor
FROM:    Jesuit Centre for Faith and Justice, Graffiti, Integra Foundation, JRS

ECRE: Report: What price does a refugee pay to reach Europe?

ECRE, through its member agencies across Europe, has collected a number of refugee stories in support of its advocacy on

UK: Children being held too long at immigration detention centre

Children are being incarcerated for too long at an immigration removal centre and becoming distressed and scared, according to prison

Europe: AIRE Centre Report: Immigration, Asylum & Detention

A key attribute of national sovereignty is the right of States to admit or exclude aliens from their territory. However, many

Cyprus: KISA Report: Migrants’ detention and ill treatment in Cyprus

Click here to download report from KISA in full

Libya: Report: How to Balance Rights and Responsibilities on Asylum at the EU Southern Border of Italy and Libya

by RUTVICA ANDRIJASEVIC
During the last year the temporary holding center for irregular migrants in Lampedusa, Italy’s southernmost island, has

UK: RSC Paper:The Evolution of Immigration Detention in the UK

RSC Working Paper No. 27 The Evolution of Immigration Detention in the UK:  The Involvement of Private Prison Companies  Christine

Italy: Report: COE Human Rights Commissioner Visit

REPORT BY MR. ALVARO GIL-ROBLES, COMMISSIONER FOR HUMAN RIGHTS, ON HIS VISIT TO ITALY 10 – 17 JUNE 2005
for the attention of

Malta: FIDH Fact Finding Mission report:

International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH)
Locking up foreigners, deterring refugees: controlling migratory flows in Malta
During the first quarter

Italy: FIDH report: Right to asylum in Italy

Right to Asylum in Italy : Access to procedures and treatment of asylum seekers
Italy’s geographical position makes the country

Italy: Report: European Parliament- Visit to Lampedusa

Report from the LIBE Committee Delegation on the Visit to the Temporary Holding Centre (THC) in Lampedusa (IT)Rapporteur: Ms Martine

Europe: SCEP: Good Practice Statement

Separated Children in Europe Programme (SCEP)
The SCEP is a joint initiative of the International Save the Children Alliance and

Europe: COMPAS Paper: The Exclusion of Asylum Seekers in Europe

This paper discusses certain mechanisms of exclusion practiced by a number of European states and the costs associated with them,

Europe: JRS: Detention in Europe- Administrative Detention of Asylum Seekers and Irregular Migrants

The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS) is a global Catholic organization, which was founded in 1980 and whose mission is to

Finland: Journal of Refugee Studies: Medical Encounters in reception centres

Clinician and asylum seeker perspectives on health & healthcare in Finnish reception centres.
Click here to download full article by

IDC Launch: JRS Italy: Press Release: (Italian)

Comunicato stampa
Servizio Gesuita per i Rifugiati

15 giugno 2006

 

I principali

IDC Launch: JRS Italy: Press Release launch (French)

Communication de presse
Il Service Jésuite des Réfugiés
15 juin 2006
 
Des hauts responsables musulmans, juifs et catholiques soutiennent

IDC Launch: JRS Italy: Press Release: Italy launch (Spanish)

Comunicación de prensa
El Servicio Jesuita para los Refugiados
 

 
15 junio 2006

Líderes musulmanes,

IDC Launch: JRS Italy: Press Release: Italy launch

Press Release
Jesuit Refugee Service
15 June 2006
Senior Muslim, Jewish, Catholic leaders support launch of international coalition challenging the

Europe: ECRE: Research paper- Alternatives to detention

Research Paper on Alternatives to Detention- Practical alternatives to the administrative detention  of asylum seekers and rejected asylum seekers.  
In its